Positive and negative activation scale for dogs
Weighting calculations:
Score 51
Negative Activation 
Positive Activation 

r1 

R5 

3 

11 

6 

R14 

8 

R17 

r10 



12 

4 

r13 

9 

r15 

18 

16 

20 

r19 



21 

2 



7 





Total 

Total 

Energy & interest 
Persistence 
Excitement 
Strongly agree = 5
Mainly agree = 4
Partly agree, partly disagree = 3
Mainly disagree = 2
Strongly disagree = 1
If REVERSE scored (”r”): 5 becomes 1, 4 becomes 2, 3 stays the same, 2 becomes 4, 1 becomes 5)
Scores are calculated by taking the total score for a section (sections are negative activation, positive activation, energy and interest, persistence, excitement) and dividing this by the total possible score for a section, taking into account questions not answered.
E.g. for negative activation a total score of 20 would be divided by 55 if all questions were answered, giving 0.36. If one of these questions was not answered then the total would be divided by 50, giving an answer of 0.4….and so on.
For persistence the total possible score if all questions are answered is 20, so totals are divided by 20. If questions are not answered (”not applicable”) you subtract 5 from the divider for each question not answered. So if a dog scored 5 for persistence but only 2 questions were answered then 5/10 = a score of 0.5.
Distribution of PANAS scores:
Negative activation:

mean ± Std.Dev 
‘Normal’ range 
Overall Questionnaire Score (OQS) 
0.48 ± (0.15) 
0.48 (0.33 – 0.63) 
Positive activation:

mean ± Std.Dev 
‘Normal’ range 
Overall Questionnaire Score (OQS) 
0.72 ± (0.13) 
0.72 (0.59 – 0.85) 
Factor 1 (Energy & interest) 
0.85 ± (0.15) 
0.85 (0.70 – 1.00) 
Factor 2 (Persistence) 
0.55 ± (0.18) 
0.55 (0.37 – 0.73) 
Factor 3 (Excitement) 
0.79 ± (0.17) 
0.79 (0.62 – 0.96) 
Negative activation:
 negative affect/negative emotionality
 mediates behavioural inhibition and withdrawal
Positive activation:
 positive affect/positive emotionality
 mediates behavioural approach
 response to incentives
Blank DIAS scoring sheet:
Scoring: 5=strongly agree, 4=mainly agree, 3=partly/partly, 2=mainly disagree, 1=strongly disagree.
(R) = Reverse the score (i.e., 4 becomes 2; 3 stays as 3; 1 becomes 5)
Overall Questionnaire Score (OQS):
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

15 

16 

17 

18 

(R) 10 

(R) 11 

(R) 12 

(R) 13 

(R) 14 

Total / (number of questions answered*5) 

Calculation explained:
(Sum of scores)
DIVIDED BY
[Number of items answered (i.e. don’t know, not applicable counts as unanswered) MULTIPLIED BY 5 (i.e. the maximum possible score for a single item)]
Factor 1 (Behavioural Regulation) Score:
1 

2 

3 

7 

8 

17 

18 

(R) 13 

(R) 14 

(R) 10 

Total / (number of questions answered*5) 

Factor 2 (Aggression / Response to Novelty) Score:
4 

5 

9 

11 

(R) 15 

Total / (number of questions answered*5) 

Factor 3 (Responsiveness) Score:
6 

10 

12 

16 

15 

Total / (number of questions answered*5) 

Further information:
DIAS score interpretation:
Overall Questionnaire Score (OQS) Higher score = higher impulsivity Factor 1 (Behavioural Regulation) Higher score = lower behavioural regulation (i.e. higher impulsivity) Factor 2 (Aggression & Response to Novelty) Higher score = higher aggression / negative responses to novelty Factor 3 (Responsiveness) Higher score = higher responsiveness 
Distribution of DIAS scores: Wright et al, 2011 (n=560):

mean ± Std.Dev 
Overall Questionnaire Score (OQS) 
0.5169 ± (0.1001) 
Factor 1 (Behavioural Regulation) 
0.4713 ± (0.1550) 
Factor 2 (Aggression & Response to Novelty) 
0.3662 ± (0.1468) 
Factor 3 (Responsiveness) 
0.6990 ± (0.1302) 
References:
Wright, H, F., Mills, D.S., Pollux, P.M.J. (2011) Development and validation of a psychometric tool for assessing Impulsivity in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris). International Journal of Comparative Psychology 24:210255.
Wright, H, F., Mills, D.S., Pollux, P.M.J. (2012) Behavioural and physiological correlates of impulsivity in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Physiology & Behavior 105:676682.
Correspondence: hwright@lincoln.ac.uk